Covid-19 according to the World Health..
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A novel coronavirus (nCoV) that has not been previously identified in humans.” COVID-19 is the name given by the World Health Organization (WHO) on February 11, 2020 for the disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. It started in Wuhan, China in late 2019 and has since spread worldwide. COVID-19 is an acronym that stands for coronavirus disease of 2019.
SARS, MERS and COVID-19 outbreak
Corona viruses are a large family of viruses, common in many animal species. Only rarely do they spread to humans and cause disease. Three such major incidences have been the SARS outbreak in 2003, the MERS outbreak in 2012, and currently the novel coronavirus COVID-19. SARS was thought to have spread from civet cats to humans, and MERS was thought to have spread from dromedary camels to humans. It is uncertain exactly which animal has propagated the current coronavirus illness.
Very little is known thus far about the specifics of COVID-19. Since it is new in humans, it will take some time to understand the virus, the transmission, the incubation period, any seasonality trends, and potential treatments or vaccines to prevent infection. Other viruses such as influenza, have been studied for years and we are able to track trends and understand how it progresses. Since the COVID-19 is novel or new, it is currently uncharted territory. We just don’t know how it will progress.
Putting these outbreaks in perspective is important. With the 2003 outbreak of SARS there have been 8,098 documented cases and 774 died. This is approximately la 9.5% mortality rate. In the 2012 outbreak of MERS there were 2494 confirmed cases with 858 associated deaths or about a 35% mortality rate. These numbers may be skewed higher due to the relatively smaller number or overall cases of SARS and MERS. The current COVID-19 outbreak has a morality rate of about 2%. In comparison, influenza has a mortality rate of less than 0.2%.
Below information is based on reported cases in China
- Dry throat / sore throat (initial infection).
- Dry cough (unproductive cough / little to no expectoration).
- Fever (above 37 degrees celsius).
- Myalgia (muscle pains).
- Rigor (chills).
- Malaise (feeling unwell).
- Dyspnea / shortness of breath (viral infection is spreading in lower respiratory tract).
- Secondary bacterial infections (opportunistic infections).
The most common symptoms & percent of patients at onset of illness:
- Red eyes, loss of taste or smell (10%).
- Fever 98.6%, (over 103).
- Fatigue 69.6% (intense tiredness that doesn’t go away).
- Dry cough 59.4% (but no sputum).
- Myalgia 34.8% (severe overall bone and joint pain).
- Dyspnea 31.2% (can’t get enough oxygen).
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Less common symptoms are:
- Expectoration / spitting.
- Loss of appetite.
- Gastrointestinal irritations (e.g. Diarrhea, stomach pains).
- Nausea + dizziness.
- Anosmia and ageusia / loss of sense of smell & taste (recent anecdotal reports).
How long do symptoms last?
- Mild cases: approximately 2 weeks
- Severe or critical disease: 3 – 6 weeks
- Time from onset to the development of severe disease (including hypoxia): 1 week
- Among patients who have died, the time from symptom onset to outcome ranges from 2 – 8 weeks.
Onset of symptom to median (IQR), in days:
- Hospital admission: 7 days
- Dyspnea (shortness of breath): 5 days
- Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): 8 days
Other facts on Covod-19 cases:
- Approx. 80% of cases are mild.
- 20% of cases will require hospital treatment.
- Approx. 5% will need intensive care.
Best prevention for Covid-19:
Maintain social distancing is the physical and psychological effect of social distancing which involves reducing close contact with other people and it’s an effort to help stop the spread of the diseases.